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When I respond, or seek responses, I think of the Internet Republic and the people [[whump]] and the places who have made our water world Eden brave and free and fair. Permitted, required, and impossible. Stand alone or stand with, whose choice to what degree [[Thn/]] O[[thn/]]ne water world Eden under "We the people" – created by whom?

“Insatiable demand,” HRC re: USA followed by, “Voracious appetite,” BHO seconding HRC.

#60 of 62: William Hale (hinging0) Sun 22 Jul 2012 (07:36 AM)

U.S. Drug War Expands to Africa, a Newer Hub for Cartels
By CHARLIE SAVAGE and THOM SHANKER
Published: July 21, 2012
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WASHINGTON — In a significant expansion of the war on drugs, the
United States has begun training an elite unit of counternarcotics
police in Ghana and planning similar units in Nigeria and Kenya as part
of an effort to combat the Latin American cartels that are
increasingly using Africa to smuggle cocaine into Europe.
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Orlando Sierra/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images
William R. Brownfield of the State Department is a leading architect
of new antidrug strategies.

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The growing American involvement in Africa follows an earlier
escalation of antidrug efforts in Central America, according to
documents, Congressional testimony and interviews with a range of
officials at the State Department, the Drug Enforcement Administration
and the Pentagon.

In both regions, American officials are responding to fears that
crackdowns in more direct staging points for smuggling — like Mexico
and Spain — have prompted traffickers to move into smaller and weakly
governed states, further corrupting and destabilizing them.

The aggressive response by the United States is also a sign of how
greater attention and resources have turned to efforts to fight drugs
as the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have wound down.

“We see Africa as the new frontier in terms of counterterrorism and
counternarcotics issues,” said Jeffrey P. Breeden, the chief of the
D.E.A.’s Europe, Asia and Africa section. “It’s a place that we need to
get ahead of — we’re already behind the curve in some ways, and we
need to catch up.”

The initiatives come amid a surge in successful interdictions in
Honduras since May — but also as American officials have been forced to
defend their new tactics after a commando-style team of D.E.A. agents
participated in at least three lethal interdiction operations alongside
a squad of Honduran police officers. In one of those operations, in
May, the Honduran police killed four people near the village of Ahuas,
and in two others in the past month American agents have shot and
killed smuggling suspects.

To date, officials say, the D.E.A. commando team has not been deployed
to work with the newly created elite police squads in Africa, where
the effort to counter the drug traffickers is said to be about three
years behind the one in Central America.

The officials said that if Western security forces did come to play a
more direct operational role in Africa, for historical reasons they
might be European and not American.

In May, William R. Brownfield, the assistant secretary of state for
international narcotics and law enforcement, a leading architect of the
strategy now on display in Honduras, traveled to Ghana and Liberia to
put the finishing touches on a West Africa Cooperative Security
Initiative, which will try to replicate across 15 nations the steps
taken in battling trafficking groups operating in Central America and
Mexico.

Mr. Brownfield said the vision for both regions was to improve the
ability of nations to deal with drug trafficking, by building up their
own institutions and getting them to cooperate with one another,
sharing intelligence and running regional law enforcement training
centers.

But because drug traffickers have already moved into Africa, he said,
there is also a need for the immediate elite police units that have
been trained and vetted.

“We have to be doing operational stuff right now because things are
actually happening right now,” Mr. Brownfield said.

Some specialists have expressed skepticism about the approach. Bruce
Bagley, a professor at the University of Miami who focuses on Latin
America and counternarcotics, said that what had happened in West
Africa over the past few years was the latest example of the
“Whac-A-Mole” problem, in which making trafficking more difficult in
one place simply shifts it to another.

“As they put on the pressure, they are going to detour routes, but
they are not going to stop the flow, because the institutions are
incredibly weak — I don’t care how much vetting they do,” Professor
Bagley said. “And there is always blowback to this. You start killing
people in foreign countries — whether criminals or not — and there is
going to be fallout.”

==========NH:
xref: cornering DC cab drivers.
=========NH//

volley2.ind 174: ?>*:\ …//2012:07:17:12:02:105*
#61 of 62: William Hale (hinging0) Sun 22 Jul 2012 (07:36 AM)

xref: “ON the table, NOT under the table,”

volley2.ind 174: ?>*:\ …//2012:07:17:12:02:105*
#62 of 62: William Hale (hinging0) Sun 22 Jul 2012 (07:38 AM)

American government officials acknowledge the challenges, but they are
not as pessimistic about the chances of at least pushing the
trafficking organizations out of particular countries. And even if the
intervention leads to an increase in violence as organizations that had
operated with impunity are challenged, the alternative, they said, is
worse.

“There is no such thing as a country that is simply a transit country,
for the very simple reason that the drug trafficking organization
first pays its network in product, not in cash, and is constantly
looking to build a greater market,” Mr. Brownfield said. “Regardless of
the name of the country, eventually the transit country becomes a
major consumer nation, and at that point they have a more serious
problem.”

=========NH:
xref: “Insatiable demand,” HRC re: USA followed by, “Voracious
appetite,” BHO seconding HRC.
========NH//

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